James Kennedy, President at ThREE Consulting & ThREEM3, John Kutsch, President, Thorium Energy Alliance: Heavy rare earths and Thorium are found together in nature. The most common and abundant source of heavy rare earths, Monazite, is currently diverted into mine-waste tailings lakes across the U.S., Canada and Brazil because of its companion element Thorium. The U.S. must address Thorium before it can develop a domestic rare earth supply chain for heavy rare earths. U.S. policy on Thorium is the basis for China’s monopoly control of rare earths. With the creation of a privately funded Centralized Rare Earth Refinery and Thorium Bank the U.S. can become independent in both Rare Earths and Energy.